of the Manthras and recitations: The history of Hinduism practically
begins in the dim past with the Hymns recorded in Rig-Veda, as the
beginning of "the Age of Mantras". We see the march of thoughts
from the early period of worship of half-personified and half-deified
forces of nature like Fire, Wind and Rain to the worship and realization
of Absolute Spirit. At this time, we see several deities and idols
being considered, then are abandoned, later overthrown and then
new ideas are developed, questioned, analyzed and accepted.
is the period when "Aryans" are said to have arrived in Indus Valley,
contested with local inhabitants and among their own tribes. The
Bharathas and Purus are the important tribes of this time. The religion
consisted of worship of gods in heaven, air and earth through prayers
and sacrifices. Varuna was the great god of cosmic and spiritual
order. Indra was the god of power. Prajapathi, Lord of all beings,
was worshipped. The religious practice at this time was highly ritualistic,
performing various rituals to fire and water. Unity of all the gods
and the universe as One Supreme Truth was asserted even at this
at this early period, there was no Henotheism, of making one`God'
supreme at each prayer. There was not even just Monotheism but Monism
was stressed. The concept of "There is but One God, called by many
names" is seen here. All are considered the children of Goddess
Aditi, the boundless One. They prayed to the Supreme Spirit that
is in and beyond this world. They believed that the world is only
It's partial manifestation. Many rituals evolved out of this practice
to keep the faith.
earliest prayers of Hinduism were written in the form of Veda. The
Rig Veda Samhita, with its ten mandalas, was the main literature
of this period. Lime stone figurines and terra-cotta seals of animals
were seen as art as part of the Indus valley civilization, believed
to be specimens of Indo-Sumerian art. They had several musical instruments
and recognised dancing as art. They also had gold jewelry at this
time. Sages Atri, Bharadwaja, Gritãmada, Vãmadeva,
Madhucchandas, Vishvamithra and Vashishta belong to this age.