Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
0
 
\
o
\
00
o
 
Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
o
o
Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
o
o
o
-HR 201.04
The Sacred Books Given to us by the Divine through our Sages
The Divine words explaining the Principles and Philosophy of Dharma
-~ Level - 2 ~
o
00
\    
\
0
 
\
-
Lesson - 55 :
Selections and Collections of Rig and Yajur Vedas
What are the divisions and how much of it we have got
Please see below
for Lesson - 56
--
\
 
 

Rig Veda Samhita consists of 10,170 Riks, or hymns, collected as 1028 Sookthas, divided into 21 Sakhas [Sections]. Rig Veda is written wholly in the form of hymns in praise of various devathas like Agni or fire. It is taken to elevate the Soul's Consciousness or the glow of the soul's awakening. They are mostly prayers to Vedic Deities and rituals of sacrifice for fire. In Rig Veda, one can see the earliest human thoughts, prayers to natural elements and early versions of poetry and drama with artistic dialogues in Hindu literature.

There should have been five Samhiathas for this: 1. Sakala, 2. Bashkala, 3. Asvalayana, 4. Sankhayana and 5. Mandukayana. Of these we have Sakala and small fragments of Bashkala that are scattered. We have Two Brahmanas, Two Aranyakas and Three Upanishads in this Veda. We see the earliest ideas that Atman produces everything and we see the thoughts of Evolution and Creation of the Universe in this Veda. Yajur Veda contains 109 Sakhas.

In Yajur Veda, the term Yajus refers to worship, "Yajna" or sacrificial rites. It gives the mantras of Rig Veda in the form of a Yajna or worship. It describes in prose the procedural details of performing different rituals and Yajnas using the hymns of Rig Veda. There are two branches of Yajur Veda. The earlier Krishna Yajur Veda was taught by Sage Vaisampaayana.

Later, Rishi Yaajnavalkya is believed to have brought the Sukla Yajur Veda or Vaajsaneyi Samhitha from Sun-God as a different version. Here "Krishna" means dark or impure, and this form of Yajur Veda was said to be arranged in a wrong order. It is said that when Sage Vaisampayana refused to teach his version Yajur to Yaagnavalkya, the latter is said to have got his divine teachings directly from Sun-God himself in the correct order and called it Sukla or Pure. Today we have two samhithas in Sukla Yajur Veda, Madhyadhina and Kanva Samhitha. Krishna Yajur Veda has four, Thaitthiriya, Maithrayani, Katha and Kapishthala Katha Samhithas.

 
  -  
  \  
\
Rig Veda - First three verses
Agnimeele' Purohitham Yagyasya De'vam Rithvijam
Hothaaram Rathna Dhaathamam - [ Rik - 1 ]
1. I pray to Agni, the household priest who is the god of the sacrifice,
the one who chants and invokes and brings most treasure.
Agnih' Poorve'bhirrishibhi Ridhyo' Noothanairutha
Sa De'vaan E'ha Vakshathi - [ Rik - 2 ]
2. Agni earned the prayers of the ancient sages, and of those of the present too;
he will bring the gods here.
Agninaa Rayimashshnavath Poshameva Dhive'dive'
Yashasam Veervaththamam - [ Rik - 3 ]
3. Through Agni one may win wealth, and growth from day to day,
glorious and most abounding in heroic sons.
\
 
\ \  
-
Lesson - 56 :
The Arrangement of Sama and Atharva Vedas
The Special features of Art, Music and Magic in the Vedas
--
 
\    

Saama Veda has 1000 Sections and the mantras are the same as in Rig Veda. All these hymns and mantras are set to music in it. Saama means "to bring `Shanthi' or `Peace' to the minds." The chanting of the Saama Veda really gives peace of mind and exhilarates the hearer. "Of the Vedas, I am Saama Veda" says Sri Krishna in Srimad Bhagavat Gita [10-22].The main Samhitha of this Veda belongs to the Kauthama school, which is popular.

There are also Ranayaniya and Jaiminiya schools in vogue, which show slight variations. The Samhitha is divided into two parts: Archika which are collection of Rik Hymns and Gaana which are songs. The scientific study of Indian Music has evolved basically from these Saama-Gaanas. Saama Veda has their own set of nine Brahmamnas and three Upanishads.

Atharva Veda has 50 Sakhas, and contains 598 hymns and 5038 verses. They are mantras in prose and as hymns, pertaining to Devathas not mentioned in the other three Vedas. It contains many mantras and many `magic formulas' designed to ward off evil and hardship and to destroy enemies. It also contains hymns about creation. They were brought to light by a Rishi named Atharvan. The word 'Atharvan' means fire priest. We have the Sounaka school of this Veda and small fragments of the Kashmirian version of Paippalada Samhitha. Arthasasthra and Ayurveda are considered to be offshoots of this Veda. It has Gopatha Brahmana and has Prasna, Mundaka and Mandukya Upanishads.

The four Vedas contain not only Philosophical and Theological verses, but also large segments of every aspect of mathematics and science. We can see astronomical calculations, Nuclear Physics, Space Technology, Biology and Chemistry and all Sciences of the past, present and the future. It is said that the Vedic trigonometry gives references by Saint Bhodayana who first gave the theory on right angle triangles. This was given to the Western world as theory of Pythogoras, which every High school student studies.

 
0    
0    
0
Atharva Veda
A Vratya there was, just going about He stirred up Prajapati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV, 1.1
He, Prajapati, saw in Himself gold ; He generated that " Hiranyagarbham" . . . . XV, 1.2
.
That became One; that became star - marked ; That became Great ; that became Chief ;
That became Brahman ; that became Truth ; There with He had Progeny . . . . . . . . . . . . XV, 1.3
He increased ; He became Great ; He became the great God, Mahadeva. !! . . . . . . . . .. . XV, 1.4
 
 
0

 

 
 
o
 
\
o
 
Chapter - 4 - The Scriptures and The Sacred Works - Lessons 55 & 56
o
 
 
0
Go to Lessons: - :~: 49 & 50 :~: 51 & 52 :~: 53 & 54 :~: 55 & 56 :~: 57 & 58 :~: 59 & 60 :~: 61 & 62 :~: 63 & 64 :
 
 
o
 

00