Veda Samhita consists of 10,170 Riks, or hymns, collected as
1028 Sookthas, divided into 21 Sakhas [Sections]. Rig Veda is written
wholly in the form of hymns in praise of various devathas like Agni
or fire. It is taken to elevate the Soul's Consciousness or the
glow of the soul's awakening. They are mostly prayers to Vedic Deities
and rituals of sacrifice for fire. In Rig Veda, one can see the
earliest human thoughts, prayers to natural elements and early versions
of poetry and drama with artistic dialogues in Hindu literature.
should have been five Samhiathas for this: 1. Sakala, 2. Bashkala,
3. Asvalayana, 4. Sankhayana and 5. Mandukayana. Of these we
have Sakala and small fragments of Bashkala that are scattered.
We have Two Brahmanas, Two Aranyakas and Three Upanishads in this
Veda. We see the earliest ideas that Atman produces everything and
we see the thoughts of Evolution and Creation of the Universe in
this Veda. Yajur Veda contains 109 Sakhas.
Yajur Veda, the term Yajus refers to worship, "Yajna" or
sacrificial rites. It gives the mantras of Rig Veda in the form
of a Yajna or worship. It describes in prose the procedural details
of performing different rituals and Yajnas using the hymns of Rig
Veda. There are two branches of Yajur Veda. The earlier Krishna
Yajur Veda was taught by Sage Vaisampaayana.
Rishi Yaajnavalkya is believed to have brought the Sukla Yajur Veda
or Vaajsaneyi Samhitha from Sun-God as a different version. Here
"Krishna" means dark or impure, and this form of Yajur Veda was
said to be arranged in a wrong order. It is said that when Sage
Vaisampayana refused to teach his version Yajur to Yaagnavalkya,
the latter is said to have got his divine teachings directly from
Sun-God himself in the correct order and called it Sukla or Pure.
Today we have two samhithas in Sukla Yajur Veda, Madhyadhina
and Kanva Samhitha. Krishna Yajur Veda has four, Thaitthiriya,
Maithrayani, Katha and Kapishthala Katha Samhithas.