are the intellectual portions of Hindu writings which explain the
meaning of Vedas by different schools of Philosophy written by Sages.
There are six different Schools of Darsanas by six different Rhishis
who systematized the various teachings of Vedas in their own ways
as the doctrines of the schools and condensed their thoughts in
the form of short aphorisms or Suthras. These six systems of Dharsanas
are recognized as the six Orthodox systems of Hindu Philosophy
which are the six ways of looking at the Supreme Truth, and believe
in the authority of the Vedas.
are also six Heterodox systems of Philosophy that came at
this time which do not accept the authority of the Vedas. They are
the various systems of the schools of Jainas and Bhuddhists which
are popular with their teaching of non-violence. We also had the
Materialistic and Atheistic school of Charvaka.
Shad-Dharsanas or the six schools of the philosophy are six
different ways of approach to the same goal. They are: Nyaya,
founded by Gauthama Rhishi, Vaiseshika by Kanada Rhishi,
Sankhya by Kapila Muni, Yoga by Pathanjali Maharishi,
Purva Mimamsa by Jaimini and Utthara Mimamsa or Vedantha
by Badarayana or Vyasa.
are grouped into three pairs by their rationalistic method of approach.
They are (i) Nyaya and Vaseshika; (ii) Sankhya and Yoga; and (iii)
Poorva Mimamsa and Vedantha. Vaiseshika is a supplement of Nyaya.
Yoga is a supplement of Sankhya. Vedantha is an amplification and
fulfillment of Sankhya and Poorva Mimamsa.
these Suthras by the Rhishis were short and difficult to understand,
many Bhashyakaras wrote detailed explanatory commentaries on these
works later. There are also many notes and later commentaries on
these commentaries. Each set of Suthra has got its Bhashya, Vritthi,
Varthika, Vyakhyana or Thika and Thippani. These are various forms
of explanatory writings on the original texts. Religious texts in
many regional languages were written on the basis of these texts
and several other sacred writings, enriching the spectrum of Hindu
literature and theological writings.