Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
0
 
\
o
\
00
o
 
Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
o
o
Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
o
o
o
-HR 201.04
The Sacred Books Given to us by the Divine through our Sages
The Divine words explaining the Principles and Philosophy of Dharma
-~ Level - 2 ~
o
00
\    
\
0
 
\
-
Lesson - 61 :
Vedhantha Dharshanas and Schools of Thought
The Six Schools on Vedaic Philosophy as Dharsanas
Please see below
for Lesson - 62
--
\
 
 

Dharsanas are the intellectual portions of Hindu writings which explain the meaning of Vedas by different schools of Philosophy written by Sages. There are six different Schools of Darsanas by six different Rhishis who systematized the various teachings of Vedas in their own ways as the doctrines of the schools and condensed their thoughts in the form of short aphorisms or Suthras. These six systems of Dharsanas are recognized as the six Orthodox systems of Hindu Philosophy which are the six ways of looking at the Supreme Truth, and believe in the authority of the Vedas.

There are also six Heterodox systems of Philosophy that came at this time which do not accept the authority of the Vedas. They are the various systems of the schools of Jainas and Bhuddhists which are popular with their teaching of non-violence. We also had the Materialistic and Atheistic school of Charvaka.

The Shad-Dharsanas or the six schools of the philosophy are six different ways of approach to the same goal. They are: Nyaya, founded by Gauthama Rhishi, Vaiseshika by Kanada Rhishi, Sankhya by Kapila Muni, Yoga by Pathanjali Maharishi, Purva Mimamsa by Jaimini and Utthara Mimamsa or Vedantha by Badarayana or Vyasa.

They are grouped into three pairs by their rationalistic method of approach. They are (i) Nyaya and Vaseshika; (ii) Sankhya and Yoga; and (iii) Poorva Mimamsa and Vedantha. Vaiseshika is a supplement of Nyaya. Yoga is a supplement of Sankhya. Vedantha is an amplification and fulfillment of Sankhya and Poorva Mimamsa.

As these Suthras by the Rhishis were short and difficult to understand, many Bhashyakaras wrote detailed explanatory commentaries on these works later. There are also many notes and later commentaries on these commentaries. Each set of Suthra has got its Bhashya, Vritthi, Varthika, Vyakhyana or Thika and Thippani. These are various forms of explanatory writings on the original texts. Religious texts in many regional languages were written on the basis of these texts and several other sacred writings, enriching the spectrum of Hindu literature and theological writings.

 
 
\ \  
-
Lesson - 62 :
Schools for Seeing the Vedic Teachings
Different Philosophical Explanations of the Vedas
--
 
\    

Whereas the Agamas are purely theological forms of the religion to explain the ritualistic practice of worship, the Ithihaasas and Puranas are meant for the massesas historical accounts and stories explaining the philosophy. Dharsanas are philosophical explanation of the meanings of the Vedas for the scholars with good knowledge, power of reasoning and intellect to understand the inner meanings of the Hindu Dharma to be practiced according to the Vedas.

The six Dharsanas are complementary to each other and not contradictory. One should study all of them to get the benefit of any of them. Vaseshika and Sankhya are not popular faiths now. Nyaya is popular and Yoga is practiced by some in its practical forms. Nyaya and Vaiseshika give an analysis of the world of experience and explain how God has made all material things of different categories out of atoms and molecules and show the ways to attain knowledge of God. Sankhya provides a deep study of Hindu Psychology as Kapila Muni was the father of Psychology.

Yoga system deals with the ways to discipline the body, mind and the senses, control the thought waves with meditation and to cultivate concentration of mind to reach the super conscious state. Poorva Mimamsa deals with the Karma-Kanda and stresses the importance of recitation of prayers and rituals as the most important duty to attain salvation. It stresses on prayers to the natural forces of Prakriti whose actions can be controlled by our prayers and Vedic rituals, and it effectively makes the role of God unimportant.

This theory was objected and corrected by Sage Vyasa Maharishi in Vedantha Dharsana which deals with Jnana-Kanda. It explains in detail the nature of Brahmam or Eternal Being, and shows that the individual soul is, in essence, identical with the supreme Self. Vedantha calls ignorance "Avidya" and aims at its eradication by True Knowledge or Jnana. It deals with the methods to remove the veil of ignorance and merge in the ocean of Brahmam. The Nyaya calls ignorance as Mithya Nyaya or false knowledge; Sankhya call it Aviveka or nondiscrimination between real and unreal.

 
0    
0    
0
\
.
\
 
0

 

 
 
o
 
\
o
 
Chapter - 4 - The Scriptures and The Sacred Works - Lessons 61 & 62
o
 
 
0
Go to Lessons: - :~: 49 & 50 :~: 51 & 52 :~: 53 & 54 :~: 55 & 56 :~: 57 & 58 :~: 59 & 60 :~: 61 & 62 :~: 63 & 64 :
 
 
o
 

00