Hindu Heritage Study Program
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Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
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Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
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-HR 201.05
The Message and Teachings of the Holy Texts of Vedas and Agamas
The Spiritual Knowledge of the Divine, the Supreme and the Universe
-~ Level - 2 ~
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Lesson - 69 :
The Message and the Philosophy of Dharsanas
Different ways of looking at the Vedic Teachings
Please see below
for Lesson - 02
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The Six Dharsanas are the different approaches to the Vedic teachings of Hindu philosophy. The main aim of Hindu philosophy is to search for the answers to the eternal questions. "Where did we all come from and where are we going?" "Is there a superior force directing all this?" "What is the reason for disease, suffering, old age and death?" "How do we get liberation from all our pains and how do we get Eternal bliss?"

We can notice the slow evolution of the thoughts in the six Dharsanas. Whereas Vaiseshika, Sankhya and Vedantha give us the theoretical parts of the philosophy, Nyaya, Yoga and Mimamsa give us the applied and practical side of the faith.

The Nyaya-Vaiseshika Schools give us the Ãrambha-Vãda. At the beginning of each Kalpa, large numbers of atoms and molecules unite to form different objects with different qualities. This may be under the will of God and destiny of the souls. In this theory, the cause remains different from the effect. Nyaaya and Vaiseshika are the analytical types of Philosophy and are very similar in their approach. They arrange all the things in the world into categories or padaarthas.

They explain how God has made all this world from atoms and molecules. They show the way to attain true knowledge of God. This world has begun by a combination of atoms. It has samyoga (conjunction) and viyoga (disassociation). The cause of this world is the paramanus (atoms) and the nine dravyas (materials), including Isvara (God). Both systems agree in their essential principles of Self and the atomic theory of Universe. Jiva is the doer and enjoyer with several attributes.

The Sankhya-Yoga schools improve on it by Parinãma- Vãda, to postulate all objects and actions into two ultimate realities, in its theory of evolution. One is Purusha which is the conscious and active and the other is the Pradhana or Prakrithi which is unconscious and dormant. In this, the effect is inherent in the cause. Finally, we see the Vivãrtha-Vãda in Vedhantha as a theory of appearance and reality. Here the system has evolved into one of absolute monism, with the unity of individual and the Divine Soul, the Jivaathma and paramaathma.

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Lesson - 70 :
Nyãya and Vaiséshika System of Philosophy
An Analytical Inquiry for Eternal Questions
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Nyãya system by Rishi Gauthama is the science of debate and discussion with reasoning and arguing. Logic is only a part of the Nyaya. It tells that knowledge implies four conditions: (i) the subject or Pramaata, (ii) the object or Prameya, (iii) the resulting state of cognition or Pramiti and (iv) the means of knowledge or Pramaana. Nyaaya says that the actions of man produce their fruits called adrishta which is supervised and controlled by God. God does not alter the course of adhrishta but renders its operation possible as the bestower of fruits of action. The cause of bondage is ignorance (Ajnaana).

Twenty-one kinds of pain constitute bondage. Isvara has Eternal knowledge or nithya-jñana, who also has desire- action (Icchaa-Kriya) as qualities or gunas. He is all-pervading or Vibhu. False knowledge or mithyaa-jñana is the root of all misery and pain. It leads to the faults of likes and dislikes and proceeds to karma or action, good or bad. This forces a man into repeated cycle of birth as reward or punishment. Moksha is the destruction of pain and bondage. One gets the release and attains supreme felicity by realizing true knowledge of the Aathman.

Vaiseshika system by Rishi Kanada arranges its inquiries into categories (padaartha); such as substance, quality, action, general and particular property and non-existance. The knowledge of padaartha is the means of attaining supreme good, resulting from the knowledge by a particular dharma. Sage Kanada does not openly refer to God in his suthras. The formation of the world was the result of adhrishta, the unseen force of karma or actions.

The followers of Kanada introduced the concept of God as the efficient cause of the world. The atoms are the material cause of this universe. The body is subtle in pralaya and gross in creation. The time, place and circumstances of birth, family and life span are all determined by adhrishta. Conjunction of soul with body is called birth, disjunction is death and moksha is the non-existance of the conjunction with body, no potential body existing.

Pleasure and pain result from the contact of soul, sense, mind and object. Desire and infatuation or moha arises from pleasure and aversion or hatred arises from pain. Intuitive knowledge of the Self destroys false knowledge. Consequently, all faults of moha will vanish.

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Chapter - 5: The Hindu Philosophy and its Principles - Lessons 69 & 70
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Lessons: ~: 65 & 66 :-: 67 & 68 :-: 69 & 70 :-: 71 & 72 :-: 73 & 74 :-: 75 & 76 :-: 77 & 78 :-: 79 & 80 :~:
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