Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
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Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
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Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
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-HR 201.05
The Message and Teachings of the Holy Texts of Vedas and Agamas
The Spiritual Knowledge of the Divine, the Supreme and the Universe
-~ Level - 2 ~
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Lesson - 71 :
The Teachings of Sãnkhya and Yoga System
A Synthetical Approach to realize the Supreme
Please see below
for Lesson - 02
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In Saãnkhya system by Rishi Kapila, there is no analytical inquiry into the universe. There is a synthetical system starting from a primordial principle or thatthva called Prakrithi which evolves and brings forth everything else. Perception, inference and right affirmation are the three proofs on Sankhya. Prakrithi is eternal, has no cause but is the cause of all effects. It is crude matter without form. Prakrithi creates only when it comes in contact with Purusha. This is done for the emancipation of each soul. They bind the soul with a triple bond.

Prakrithi is composed of the three gunas. All objects are composed of the three gunas, Sattvika, Rajasika and Tamasika and their interaction leads to evolution or manifestation. All objects and actions are made of two ultimate realities, Purusha and Prakrithi. Purusha is without beginning or end and without attributes or qualities and are infinite in number. Bondage belongs to only Prakrithi whereas Purusha is eternally free.

The Yoga system, founded by Pathañjali Maharishi, is a branch or supplement to Sãnkhya. Yoga is restraint of the activities of the mind and is the union of the individual soul with the Supreme Soul. Pathañjali's Yoga is Raja yoga or ashtanga yoga which deals with discipline of the mind and its psychic powers. Hatha yoga deals with methods of bodily control and regulation of breath. Its culmination leads to Raja Yoga.

In Kapila's Sãnkhya there is no Ishvara or God. In Pathanjali's `Yoga', there is a special Purusha or Ishvara. It accepts the metaphysical view of the Sankhya system, but it lays emphasis on the practical side of self-discipline and concentration of will power for the realization of the absolute unity of the Purusha. It claims greater orthodoxy than Sankhya by acknowledging the existence of a Supreme being or Ishvara. He is a special Purusha or a particular Soul unaffected by afflictions, works, fruition and vehicles. It describes the ethical discipline of Yama and Niyama, certain virtues to be followed, [see lesson 93] and the chief of them is nonviolence or ahimsa. Avidhya is the main cause of our troubles that leads to ego, desires and aversion that veils the spiritual vision. Devotion to God gives freedom.

 

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Lesson - 72 :
A Discipline of Rituals as the Mimãmsa System
Do we need a God to receive a boon when Rituals alone will do?
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Sri Jaimini, a disciple of Sri Vyãsa Maharishi, founded the system of Poorva Mimamsa or Karma Mimamsa. It is an inquiry into the rituals portion of the Vedas, Manthras and Brahmanas only. It is not a true philosophical system. It is rather a system of Vedic interpretation, dealing with a critical commentary on the Brahmanas or ritual portions of Vedas. It has a number of Deities and Vedic offerings are made to them. It gives detailed description of different sacrifices and their purpose.

Jaimini was an opponent of rationalism and Theism. The whole aim of his system was a desire to know dharma or duty, which consists of the performance of rites and rituals as prescribed in Vedas. There was no place for a Divine Creator but just the presiding Deity of each ritual and Vedic rites. The Vedas were practically the only God for him. It needs no other basis to rest on; there is no Divine revelation at any time.

Sri Jaimini does not so much deny God as he ignores His existence. A supreme God was not necessary for his system. Vedic dharma is not in need of a Supreme Being or God. Dharma itself will bestow the rewards. The fruits and rewards of sacrifices are not dispensed by a God but by the Apurva. Apurva is Adhrishta, an unseen force created by an act which leads to the fruits of action. The self is distinct from the body, the senses and mind.

The Self is the experiencer, Body is the abode of experience and the Senses are the instruments of experience. The Self perceives when it is in union with the mind. The Self is not the senses as it persists even when the senses are destroyed. The Self directs the body and it is all-pervading and imperishable. The performer of sacrifice goes to svarga, attainable through the performance of the rituals of karma only.

Jaimini does not believe in moksha. Jaimini's system has been criticized as incomplete and unsatisfactory. Most people, even though very much interested in the rituals and their effects, could not accept the system without a role for a Divine Supreme Reality as the bestower of the cause and effect of the rituals. This system could not satisfy the thoughtful men.

 
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Chapter - 5: The Hindu Philosophy and its Principles - Lessons 71 & 72
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Lessons: ~: 65 & 66 :-: 67 & 68 :-: 69 & 70 :-: 71 & 72 :-: 73 & 74 :-: 75 & 76 :-: 77 & 78 :-: 79 & 80 :~:
 
 
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