Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
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Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
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Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
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-HR 201.05
The Message and Teachings of the Holy Texts of Vedas and Agamas
The Spiritual Knowledge of the Divine, the Supreme and the Universe
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Lesson - 73 :
The Evolution of Uttara Mimãmsa Dharsana
Changes to the Path of Rituals to make it acceptable
Please see below
for Lesson - 02
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Sri Jaimini's Poorva Mimãmsa was losing popular support as it did not accept a role for a Supreme Reality and its relation with soul and matter, for the performance of rituals and their effects on the individuals. Sages Prabhakara and Kumarila modified the views to some extent. The later Mimamsakas slowly introduced the concept of God to Sri Jaimini's theory. Karma-Kanda is still the chief section of Vedas. They said apurva cannot act unless it is moved by God. The soul is the doer and enjoyer. If sacrifices are performed in favor of a Supreme-Being it will lead to achievement of supreme good.

Performance of actions that are enjoined in Vedas is the Sadhana. The cause of bondage is the performance of Nishiddha Karma or prohibited actions. Kumarila maintains that the Veda is composed by God and Brahman is in the form of sounds. Moksha is the positive state of realization of Atman and is a state without pain or pleasure and is without attributes. He thinks that final emancipation can be attained through Karma (action) combined with Jñana (knowledge). Knowledge alone is not sufficient for Salvation. Their views came very close to Advaitha philosphy and Vedantha but not quite the same.

Sri Vyasa Maharishi's Uttara Mimamsa system conforms closely to the teachings of the Upanishads which are the last portions or the essence of the Vedas or Veda-antha, hence called Vedhantha Philosophy. He wrote the Brahma Suthra or Vedantha Sutra explaining the doctrine of Brahman. Here, we see the unity of the matter and spirit, Jivaathma and Paramaathma. He also introduces the concepts of Avidya or ignorance and Maya causing the inherent inability for the individual Soul from recognizing its true self and the Supreme Reality.

According to this school, the cause without undergoing any change in itself, produces the effect. How exactly is the reality connected with the appearance is indefinable and is a matter of spiritual experience and true knowledge. This system is considered superior to all other five Darsanas, however it is complementary to them. One should study the other five systems also to benefit from this system fully.

 

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Lesson - 74 :
Vedhãntha Philosophy through True Knowledge
Vedãntha theories of Reality and Maya in Universe
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Sri Vyasa Maharishi, son of Sri Parasara Maharishi, founded the Uttara Mimamsa system of philosophy. According to him, the Reality appears to our finite intelligence as the universe of time and space. When we come to realize the changeless God, we are no longer troubled by the changing world. The Reality of the Supreme appears to us as the universe through the veil of Maya. Here Maya should not be taken as to mean illusion. The universe for the Hindu is reality and not an illusion. It is only Buddhist Philosophers who taught that the world is an illusion.

Maya is the mystery, the mysterious power by which God, while remaining changeless Himself, gives rise to the changing phenomenal universe. It has two aspects; one in which, it hides the real by its veil and secondly it projects a vision or object of unreal as real. So, sometimes, it is identified with the Prakrithi and it is also called Avidya or ignorance. It is the natural disability of the soul which prevents it from comprehending God as He is really is.

The natural limitations of soul caused by the avidhya are called Upaadhis. The Atman, when clothed in Upaadhis, becomes Jiva. The Jivas are clothed in five sheaths. Jivas appear separate from one another like several islands in an ocean with different fauna and flora. Like all these islands are connected to one another under the depths of the ocean, all jivas are connected. When the avidhya and the natural limitations of the body, mind and understanding are removed and when true knowledge is obtained, the individual is no longer individual. He becomes one with the Universal spirit.

He who knows the Supreme Brahman truly, becomes Brahman himself. A man who has reached such a state is called Jivanmuktha. Brahman, the Absolute, after creating the elements, enters them as the Light of the soul. It is ever pure, Absolute Reality. It is the material cause as well as the instrumental cause of the universe. Brahman and the universe are not different, just as the pot is not different from the clay. Brahman develops Itself into the universe for Its own Lila or sporting, without undergoing any change and without ceasing to be Itself.

 
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Chapter - 5: The Hindu Philosophy and its Principles - Lessons 73 & 74
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Lessons: ~: 65 & 66 :-: 67 & 68 :-: 69 & 70 :-: 71 & 72 :-: 73 & 74 :-: 75 & 76 :-: 77 & 78 :-: 79 & 80 :~:
 
 
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