Hindu Heritage Study Program 
A Companion to the Study of Hinduism - Part IV
HR 255.04
Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
~ Level - 2
Vedas and Ritualistic Practice
A Collection of the Texts Available that gives the Divine Message
for Everyone to Study, Understand and Practice in Rituals
Selected Prayers and Hymns from the Vedic Scriptures to Recite
- 06 -
Brahada'ranyaka Upanisad
Part - IV




Verily, there are two forms of Brahman,
the formed one and the formless one,
The mortal and the immortal, the unmoving and the moving,
the Actual and the TRUE . ........................................................................ .II- 3.1
This is formed Brahman, whatever is different
from the air and the atmosphere.
This is mortal. This is unmoving. This is Actual.
The essence of this is formed,
this mortal, this unmoving, This Actual is the yonder Sun,
which givesforth warmth,
for that is the essence of the actual. . ....................................................... II- 3.2
Now the formless is the air and the atmosphere.
This is immortal, this is moving ;
And this true is the person who is in the region of the sun
for he is the essence of the True. .............................................................. II- 3.3
This, verily, is the Lord of all beings;
the king of all beings.
As all the spokes are held together in the hub
and felly of a wheel, just so, in this self ;
All beings, all gods, all worlds, all breathing creatures,
all these selves are held together ............................................................. II- 5.15
Katha Upanishad

shravaNaayaapi bahubhiryo na labhyaH shravanto.api bahavoyaam.h na vidyuH . aashcharyo vaktaa kushalosya labdhaaH aashcharyo GYaataa kushalaanushishhThaH .. - kaTha upanishhad

" He (The Truth) who cannot even be heard of by many, whom many, even hearing, do not know, wondrous is he (the person) who can teach (The Truth) and skilful is he (the person) who finds (The Truth) and wondrous is he (the person) who knows, even when instructed otherwise. "

- 06 -a-
Nyaya Suthra -- Dharsana -- Book I -- Chapter I
[ A Sample excerpted from "A source book in Indian Philosophy"
Part - IV
Statement of subject matter, purpose and relation of the treatise.
1. Supreme felicity is attained by the knowledge about the true nature of the sixteen categories, viz. means of knowledge, object of right knowledge, doubt, purpose, familiar instance, established tenet, members, confutation, ascertainment, discussion, wrangling, cavil, fallacy, quibble, futility and occasion for rebuke.
2. Pain, birth, activity, faults (defects) and misapprehension (wrong notion) --
- on successive annihilation of these in reverse order, there follows release.
From wrong notion proceeds attachment to the agreeable and aversion for the disagreeable --- there appears the defects: such as envy, jealousy, deceit etc.
Definition of the instruments of right cognition:
3. Perception, inference, comparison and verbal testimony.
4. Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is determinate, unnamable and unerring.
5. Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception and is of three kinds, viz., a priori, a posteriori and commonly seen.
6. Comparison [analogy] is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously known.
7. Word [verbal testimony] is the instructive assertion of a reliable person.
Definition of the objects of right cognition:
9. Soul (self), body, senses, objects of sense, intellect, mind, activity, fault, transmigration [rebirth], fruit, pain and release are the objects of right knowledge.
10. Desire, aversion, volition, pleasure, pain and intelligence are the marks of the soul.
11. Body is the site of action, senses and sentiments [objects].
12. Nose, tongue, eye, skin and ear are the senses produced from elements.
13. Earth, water, light, air and ether -- these are the elements.
14. Smell, taste, color, touch and sound are the objects of senses.
15. Intellect [bhuddhi], apprehension [upalabdhi], and knowledge [jnaana] --
- these are not different from one another.
16. The mark of the mind is that there do not arise (in the self) more acts of knowledge than one at a time.
17. Activity is that which makes the voice, mind and body begin their action.
18. Faults have the characteristic of causing activity. -- the faults are attachment, aversion and ignorance.
19. Transmigration means rebirth.
20. Fruit is the thing produced by activity and faults.
21. Pain has the characteristic of causing uneasiness.
22. Release is the absolute deliverance from pain.
Sarve bhavantu sukhinah, Sarve santu niramayah
Sarve bhadrani pashyantu, Makashchit dukha mapnyat.
(Oh Lord, May all be happy, May all be free from misery,
May all realize goodness and may all be free pain.)
Vedas : - Page 1 - , : - Page 2 - , : - Page 3 - , : - Page 4 - : , :- Page 5 - , : - Page 6 -.
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