G A M A S
AND ART OF TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION
PRAGNA - Srinivasaprasad Kidambi
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I - ( Definition, Sources, and Classification )
cultures for centuries all across the continents built huge structures for places
of worship, observatories, burial places. The size and layout was so complex and
perfect to indicate that the basis of such constructions must be sound scientific
principles of most advanced branches of engineering sciences. The need for such
huge places also must have been dictated by more pressing and practical concerns
in public policy, agriculture and public health rather than just to show the pomp
of a king. Many of these structures all over the world are now available in ruins
or completely destroyed excepting many of the structures in India and across the
East Asian Buddhist countries like Burma, China and Japan. This successful destruction
was perpetuated from 4th century onwards by various plethoras of groups of religious
zealots, hate groups and several nomadic tribes as a tool to propagate their faiths
and religious beliefs and intimidate the society following existing cultures and
traditions. In the modern day when such atrocious acts cannot be perpetuated,
the some societies are using multinational corporations, rebellious armies, Religious
fundamentalists and some hate groups to destroy these structures in the name of
land reforms, modernization of agriculture and industrialization.
nothing works, they achieve their goal by organizing and creating terrorist and
separatist groups . Recently a spate of these structures are being discovered
in Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, India and Australia on land
and under sea. These newly discovered sites remarkably resemble in design, content
and construction, with existing Oriental (Asian, Indian) structures. In the absence
of any knowledge about these structures in India or in Asia or deliberately omitting
them from even mentioning as existing, or by deliberately not encouraging the
authoritative texts in this field of architecture dealing with such constructions
from being translated in to western languages, the western academia is throwing
lot of new theories of speculative nature. Their bias towards Judeo- Christian
origin and development of civilization is so missionary that they even want to
destroy these texts by encouraging third world governments to not to support the
small press that helps to publish the texts that deal with the scientific principles
of such constructions.
refer the following texts for a detailed discussion.
1. Dope Inc., Boston
Bankers and Soviet Communists, by editors of Executive Intelligence Review, New
Benjamin Franklin House, New York 1986. Pp 93-pp 498.
2. Thy Will Be Done,
The conquest of the Amazon, Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the age of oil.
Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett, Harper Collins, 1995. Pp 09-pp 929.
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knowledge for most part of the time handed over in through the oral tradition
of learning Shruthi, has to be printed and preserved before the knowledgeable
persons in these fields completely vanish. Even in places from India to Japan
where these mind boggling super structures are preserved intact along with the
texts and commentaries, thousands of practitioners in the designing and engineering
fields of the above field of science exist, the bias of the same academicians
both western and western trained native scholars, is creating a plethora of speculative
theories to discredit the genuine scholars in the above disciplines and condemn
them. Due largely to lack of support from mainstream academicians, limitations
of language and the governmental negligence towards those who can interpret the
texts, explain the science and art of the process of the construction are fast
vanishing. This book is an attempt to lift the, so called, modern scientific disciplines
of archeological-astronomy and archeology from such bias and academic dishonesty
to validate non biased academic sciences and to give boost to all those silent
scholars to continue their work. This book is an attempt to translate the vast
array of texts that exist in the above scientific fields so that the researchers
will be able to make an informed decision.
From the time the Vedas codified the engineering sciences dealing with construction
- be it at individual level (house, farm yard, etc) or at macro level (village,
town, city planning, forts, irrigation, roads, canals etc) - are grouped under
generic field of knowledge called Sthapathya Veda (Science of Forms) or Shilpa
Veda (Science of Creation). Sthapthya Veda is the Upa Veda (supplementary branch)
for Atharva Veda. Within Sthapathya Veda the planning, designing, construction
of individual houses, farms, and villages, towns, cities, roads, canals, parks,
irrigation, public works etc are codified under Vasthu Sasthra (Science of Structural
Formations). The planning, engineering, designing, of community places of worship,
temples, sacrificial altars are codified under Agama Sasthra (Science of Temple
Source of Agamas
draw their theory and practice from many sources. The following is the brief description
of the various sources of Agamas.
The contents of the ancient
texts referred to as Vedas can be summarized with the single Sanskrit word dharma
(that which evolves into omniscience). Vedas are vast and comprehensive body of
knowledge, properly known in its entirety as Shruti, though generally referred
to as simply Vedas, they encompass literally tens of thousands of texts of many
classifications, including those properly called Vedas, as well as collections
called Brahmanaas, Aranyakaas, Upanishads, Prathisakhyas, Shroutha Suthraas, Gruhya
Suthras, Samhithas, Puranas, Upavedas, Vedaangaas, Darshanas, etc. The actual
dates of composition and compilation of the Vedas (Shruti) is made in to a dispute
by biased western linguists and Missionary Fathers who do not want to accept anything
older than 7,000 years as that is the date of creation according to New Testament,
or King James version of bible. No other scientists belonging to any other behavioral
sciences or history or archeology never ever made any attempt so far to date these
texts in any scientific way conceivable.
below discussion on The Vedas.
Sasthra: A rational scientific discipline of
The word comes from Sanskrit root Sashu anusasane, meaning
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to Indian Vedic scholars, Vedic Knowledge exists for ever as it deals with the
force or the forces of creation, evolution and dissolution of Universe(s) which
the Vedas call with a feminine noun Sakthi or or neuter noun Brahman. It is only
Rishis, sages or seers in their evolved states of consciousness realizes the knowledge
and transmits the same (the Process of Becoming a Rishi and the methodology of
acquiring true knowledge) to the interested individuals with out any cost or tuition
fees by way of Oral Tradition of Teaching called Shruthi. Historically, Rishi
Veda Vyasa completed the first compilation of the Vedas in written book form at
the beginning of kali era for the coming generations. It is believed that in the
kali era the human mind will not be capable of remembering such vast annals of
information and knowledge. So it is simple fact that if we determine the beginning
of the present kali era then we know the first compilation date of the Vedas in
textual form. But unfortunately none of the linguists or academicians are anywhere
close to even accept the historical account of ancient Indian texts. By discarding
the ancient Indian texts as mythology plethora of unscientific standards were
created since Mr. Max Muller, a catholic priest, funded by British first proposed
the solar and lunar myth stories as the origin of Vedas. Also, though deliberately
and totally side lining one of the most important historical treatise of Kalhana
the official historian of Kashmir Kings who details dynasties of kings after the
war of Kurukshetra which is officially the starting date of Kali era, and by claiming
that the text written by Kalhana is nothing but his imagination, another important
historical source is buried and paved way for erroneous theories. The first official
dating of the origin of Vedas was given to be around 1500 B.C. The reason for
this conclusion is that there was a mention of gold in Vedas and thus they must
have been written after the discovery of gold, and as of then (during the time
of Mr. Max Muller) it is established that Egyptians used gold 2500 B.C., logically
Vedas must have been written in 1500 B.C. According to modern archeological and
astro-archeological evidence scientists accepted the first compilation of the
Vedas must have been accomplished between 450,000 B.C. to 420,000 B.C. (dating
confirmed by modern techniques such as carbon dating, thermo luminescence dating,
sattelite imagery) but still concurs with the 1500 B.C. dating by philologists
and linguists with no hard core scientific evidence from archeology, anthropology
and archeo-astronomy because of Judeo- Christian bias . In order to over come
the scientific findings they came up with a technique called Calibrated Carbon
Dating. This simply means if there is proof from advanced sciences that and existing
structure dates back to thousands of years, and we cannot explain the phenomenon,
then the scientists can reduce the actual date to suit the accepted social and
behavioral theories. For example, if a temple in South America dates back to,
say, 30,000 B.C. then, as it is an anomaly and we have to accept that there is
civilization in Americas long before Moses and Abraham, which does not fit accepted
academic thought, we can conveniently say despite scientific evidence to the contrary,
that the temple is only 3,000 years old to suit the existing theories of migrations
of people across Americas. The process is calibrated carbon dating comes handy
in these situations. This method started just two years before.
means he who pursues and understands the truth about Universe. A vague equivalent
is True Scientist who pursues only Truth not biased by ANY interests.
same scholars spending and will spend billions of dollars in proving though in
vain that Bible is history and everything said and done in Bible has to have a
Biblical creation account is 7000 years old. So every thing
should be within this range.
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Vedas form the basis of what to the West is now known as Hinduism and Buddhism,
but in the East is called simply "followers of Dharma". As discussed
earlier these Vedas, or Shruti, are said to have been compiled under the general
direction of the sage Maharishi Veda Vyasa. Working with four of his principal
disciples, who in turn oversaw the work of thousands of other sages, they collected
and compiled existing works from a wide variety of sources after ascertaining
which were authentic records of true knowledge. All of those sages involved in
the collecting and compiling of these works, as well as the authors whose works
were selected to be included in the Vedas (Shruthi), are believed to have been
rishis or enlightened beings.
After the whole of this Vedic literature had
been collected and compiled, these works were then fully and exhaustively indexed
and cross-referenced, so that the result is a closed system of knowledge. There
is, therefore, no dispute as to which existing works form an authentic part of
these collections--if it is not listed in the indexes, it cannot claim to be a
part of Shruti (Vedic) literature. It is for these reasons that those who call
themselves "followers of Dharma" tend to consider the actual Vedic or
Shruti literature as the final written authority in ascertaining truth. The authors
of this work, dispite many years of intensive study of thousands of Vedic texts,
have found no contradictions within these works.
1. Vedas and Upa Vedas
of the Veda has a Upa Veda or Supplemental Veda. The following table summarizes
the Vedas and their Upa Vedass.
Veda or Upa Veda is a Codex of hundreds or some time even thousands of individual
texts which incorporate various styles of presentation of a particular subject
matter under consideration. The following tables numbering 2 & 3 & 4 elaborate
on the classification of Vedas and Upa Vedas.
of Forms|| |
the Vedas a rishi is defined as "he who is truth or who perceived and fully
realized the truth", being described as "one who fully realizes that
all manifestation is Brahman, that he himself is Brahman, and who exists in this
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subject matter of the Vedas (Shruti) is classified into twelve broad general branches
called Darshanas. For each branch there exists one apex text with and appendix
Darshana or Sutra. Each Darshana serves to summarize and codify the whole of the
knowledge on its given subject, the details of which are distributed among the
vast array of Vedic literature. Encyclopedic in scope, they (darshanas) touch
upon all aspects of a given subject, leaving the specific details to other Vedic
branches. The following table summarizes the 12 darshanas. The first six of these
darshanas provide theoretical basis for the latter six. The latter six are in
a way interpretations of the first six darshanas in a given context that dictate
either social or individual behaviour.
Evolution - Spiritual|
Evolution - Social, Individual|
and Empirical Sciences dealing with Absolute|| |
/ Social interpretation|
Interpretation - Individual Level|
and Yogic Interpretation - Social Level|
Interpretation of 7 & 8|| |
Darshanas belonging to Upa Vedas are either unavailable, burnt, lost, [or given
away to many universities across USA, Germany, Canada by Indian immigrants whose
ancestors preserved them from centuries of oppression] or still preserved either
in Nepal or in Tibet in monastries where they were taken when Nalanda and Taxila
Universities were burned by the aliens. The apex text Shilpa Sutras supposed to
be written by Maharishi Viswakarma or Sthapathya Sutras is not available.
Though Agama philosophy is referred to within each of these Vedas, the general
principles of all elements of Agamas are found primarily within the Atharva Veda
and in its branches or declensions, and codified in Shilpa sutras. Expanding upon
the general outline contained in Atharva Veda are the Shilpa Sutras by Rishi Viswakarma.
In addition to the apex Sutra Literature, there are Vedic sources which can be
divided in to six tiers: 1)Upanishads, 2)Samhithas, 3) Tantras 4) Agamas and 5)
Pradipikaas, Karikas, Matas 6) Vyakhyanas (Special renderings or commentaries).
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is now evidence available to prove that the Chinese invasion of Tibet is partly
motivated by the fact that they want to posses the ancient texts preserved. And
infact there is evidence that they send some of these manuscripts to Chandigarh
University to translate. Dr. Ruth Renya translated them and sent them back to
both Chinese and to Indian scientists stating that the manuscripts contained detailed
descriptions regarding building interstellar space ships. Few years latter Chinese
announced that they are including parts of the process detailed in the texts in
their space missions. Anti Gravity Hand Book, pp 130-135,Compiled by D. Hatcher
Childress, Network/Adventures Unlimited Press., Stelle, Illinois 60919. (See the
Appendix for photocopy of the page 130)
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second tier of Vedic texts that deal with Shilpa Sastra (Agamas and Vasthu), the
Sthapathya Upanishads, supposed to be one hundred and twenty in number, and they
serve to expand upon the basic principles of and practices of Agamas presented
in the Vedas proper. It is here that the most precise presentation of the techniques
and practice of design, construction techniques, layouts are found, making the
Shilpa Upanishads among the more important source material for the present text.
After the Upanishads are the Samhithas, which provide for still
further elaboration. Samhitha means "a compiled scientific text", indicating
that the author has assembled information from existing Vedic sources (Shruti)
and presented it in a very structured and precise format. There are hundreds of
Samitha texts that deal with all elements and aspects of Agamas. Here all the
concepts outlined within the Sthapathya Upanishads and Vedas proper are presented
in great detail.
All minute details pertaining to carving of idols, worship
methodologies, the performance of proper yagnas, proper celebrations on particular
festive days, the precise size, shapes of idols etc are found in greater detail.
Thus the Samhithas represent the most significant source material on the different
Agama schools. Most important among these samhithas are Mrigendra Samhita, Viswamitra
Samhita, Padma Samhita etc.
The third level of Vedic sources on Agamas are Tantras. These form
the most important basis of Agamas. They deal with very minute details of training
the worshippers, initiation in to the process of worship, daily worship methodologies
for different deities, daily celebrations, festivals etc. Tantraraja Tantra, Kularnava
Tantra, Malini Vijaya Tantra, Lakshmi Tantra, Satwata Tantra Vamakeswara Tantra
are few to mention. These texts specifically state for for which Agama they belong
to as they deal with worship details for a particular diety. Some of the Tantras
even explain the methods of individual house hold worship.
Agamas are the fourth level of the sources. These texts end with
the suffix Agama signifying that they specifically deal with theory of Agama only
and not with the theory of Vasthu. The other mentioned above sources are applicable
to Vasthu and Agama. These are very specific and precise in their nature, scope
and presentation. Some Agama texts were even written to explain one particular
temple's construction. Some times they deal with one aspect of a particular god
like Lalitha aspect of Sakthi. Some of the important texts are Roravottara Agama,
Vatula Sudha Agama, Karana Agama, Kamika Agama, Vaikhanasa Agama etc.
(Pra) Dipikas, Karikas and Matas
The Fifth level of Vedic sources, the Pradipikas,
(additional Explanations) are renderings by great yogis of the information found
in greater detail within the Samhithas Upanishads. There are many Pradipikas on
Agamas. Of all Prapancha Sara by Sri Sankaracharya is a very important text in
Sakthi Agamas. Shiva Kamini dipika is an important text among Shiva Agamas.
Karika means a specific scientific explanation
for a specific subject matter under consideration. These are written by the practicing
Agama Teachers, Shilpis at different times as a research presentations to reinforce
the scientific principles behind a particular Agama theory. Sri Tatva Chintamani,
Pratyabhigna Karika are such Texts.
Mata means opinion. It is the rendering or
approach towards a particular Agama Principle, theory by practicing Shilpi, at
a particular geographical location or after a particular astronomical event or
after a particular lapse of time (usually more than 432,000 year cycles). These
rendering are made only to make the agama theory workable after a major astronimical
or geological event in the process of evolution. This is like a corollary to the
main theory or an exception under certain given circumstances. Maya Mata (practiced
in Americas, north and south, in native Indian cultures and by Mayans, Azetics,
Tolemics erc), Viswakarma Mata (as practiced in Africa, Europe) are such two important
sixth level are the Vyakhyaanaas. These sources are different arrangements of
the existing Agamic knowledge made by various yogis/shilpis for the use of students
at a specific time. All of these sources made it very clear that their rearrangements
were made only for the convenience of aspiring students, and were in no way intended
to expand upon, enlarge, refute or replace any of the teachings or systems of
thought of the preceding Vedic sources. Thus these arrangements and names are
not be mistaken as separate "branches" or schools of Agamic philosophy.
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samanthaasya gamyatha ithyaagamoo mathaha
tanuthe trayathe nithyam tantra
mithi viduhu budhaha
The ever expanding and contracting forms of
manifestation/creation (movable and non movable) and the relation between them
is explained, so it is called Agama. The knowledge of Agama tries to synchronize
and protect the delicate balance of creation, so it is also termed as Tantra.
vipulanaarthaan tantra mantra samavithaan
traanam cha kuruthe yasmaathanthramithyabhidhhiyathe
Agama. Tantra Tara Patala.
the detailed explanation is provided for protecting the existing creation, it
is called Tantra.
As we have seen Agama's primary purpose is to protect existing creation. Provide
scientific explanations for the acts done under the Agama Texts. What is creation?
The theory of creation in the Vedas has three different aspects and they are discussed
in three different stages.
Appendix 1 for a list of Pradipikas, Karikas and Matas.
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